Phishing in general is a way for a hacker to pose using an electronic medium such an email, facebook message to pose as a real entity such as your local bank or your facebook account.
Normally these type of phishing attempts will ask you to click a link to login your account to change your password. You can spot a phishing email by hovering your mouse over the link and on the bottom right of your browser it will tell you where think link will take you. Chances are the site its pointing to is a dummy site which looks and feels like the account you are trying to access.
Prevention from phishing scams:
The easiest way to safe guard yourself from phishing scams is any email asking you to click a link to change or see something from the potential site, you will want to open a new browser window go to the url such as facebook.com if the message is coming from facebook. Login as normal and if you see the alert message then your safe.
Any bank will never ask for personal information by clicking a link. Phishing in general is really a way to see what people are easily fooled to click the link. Which is how they catch their phish. lol be safe and don't be a phish.